Category Archives: 5 Constructed Realities and the Fabricated Image

Assignment 5 – Tutor Feedback

I was extremely happy with the final feedback I received from my tutor for the last assignment. Having wrestled a bit with finding a suitable idea for the photograph, I was pleased it worked out, especially when I received the following feedback:-

The final image shows real planning with attention to portraying the story – with the sourcing and including Vegemite. The image is accomplished and you have absorbed both technical and aesthetic principles from your study of Crewdson. 

My tutor also pointed out the awful perspective distortion which I had neglected to rectify. I love using my wide-angle zoom but sometimes forget the effect it causes. As part of the final submission I have corrected it using the functionality within Lightroom which was quick to do.

My tutor also advised me to write interim posts for assignments ahead of writing up the final submission. I have made a mental note for future courses to catalogue the sequence of generating ideas.  I think I achieved this best for Assignment 2, but it fell by the wayside for other assignments.

I had also added personal projects to the blog which was well received by my tutor. These have been haphazard to say the least over the duration of the last year or so, but I’m now picking up the pace again and getting more and more motivated.

I spoke with my tutor about the issue of timing and being able to squeeze in my third level 2 course before the deadline (having spent so many months on this course). I am determined to achieve this and she suggested overlapping with finalising for the assessment with starting the next module and this was good advice having also checked the deadline dates again with the OCA office. I can’t wait to start the next module now!

Assignment 5 – Constructed Realities

The task for this assignment was to construct a stand-alone image or make a series of photographs elaborating on the same theme. The work needs to have been controlled and directed for a specific purpose and the aim is to use props, costumes, models, location, lighting etc. to contribute to the overall meaning of the image. Consideration of symbolic meanings of objects is required, but avoidance of being too literal is crucial.

An illustrated evaluation of the process is required including snapshots of the work and thoughts and ideas during the creative process e.g. how the direction went, how the location was discovered and how well it worked, props etc. An explanation of how the process affected the final outcome is also required.


I fell upon the story of Michael Nadan after delving behind an attention-grabbing headline from the Sun ‘ARE ZOO KIDDING!’  This was a tale of a former abattoir worker who killed his cousin’s girlfriend, was suspected of murdering another cousin, and who then became a fugitive evading capture for seven years by hiding out in the 300 hectares of Dubbo’s Western Plains Zoo in western New South Wales, Australia. Nadan reportedly decapitated a Galapagos tortoise and devoured its insides for food. Ignoring this single rather grotesque-sounding incident, his story of survival was quite remarkable before he was eventually captured within the grounds of the zoo in December 2005.

My idea was to create a photograph of Nadan in one of his zoo hideouts and include evidence of some of the methods he used to obtain food, as well as some eccentricities of his appearance when he was captured. I wanted to leave a trail of clues within the image I created so that the viewer could attempt to piece together the story. I wanted the bizarreness of the story also to give a surreal edge to the final photograph.

I used multiple sources for my research including 3 different on-line news stories which each contained photographs relating to the story. I used the articles as well as the photographs as reference points for some of the props and staging I wanted to use.

Having recently visited Gregory Crewdson’s exhibition ‘Cathedral of the Pines’ at the Photographer’s Gallery in London, I drew upon some of his core ideas regarding his production of a photograph: lighting was clearly key, and so my chosen location had to enable me to reflect the harsh reality of this man’s life as a fugitive and generate an atmosphere of desperation and solitude. Also Crewdson’s meticulous attention to detail was a lesson in itself: the props had to be genuine and believable for the complete image to work. I also learnt that relatively small-sized props (in terms of the proportion of the frame that they fill), can add disproportionately louder messages as part of telling a story.

In my summary I have been critical of the final outcome for the photographs I created, largely because I was disappointed about one particular prop which I did not really appreciate the impact of at the time. This was a can of Stella Artois (Belgium is a long way from Australia!). Had this been a film set, it would have screamed ‘school boy error’ for its inappropriateness. However, I was limited with the time I could spend at the chosen location but I didn’t want to change the setting because I felt it added so much to the overall photograph:-

The location I found was on private property and we were effectively trespassing and there was a security company employed to carry out drive round surveillance at regular intervals. We were lucky on our first visit not to meet anyone (I took all my OCA assignment details and student card with me just in case) but I was concerned about doing a repeat visit for the shoot just for the sake of removing one item which didn’t quite fit. We also took a lot of gear with us and had to park close to the building and in a zone where we would have been fined; this cemented my decision to not try and repeat the shoot for the assignment.

I was however, overall very pleased with the results and I achieved what I set out to in terms of preparation and the shoot itself and this is reflected in my summary assessment of the work.

Location, props, subject and direction


Nadan lived for a while in an attic which he used in one of the zoo warden’s properties, accessed via a pantry, but the fugitive used multiple locations in order to avoid leaving a trail of clues of his existence.  The Daily Mail Australia reported this to be the hut in which he was living when he was eventually captured:-


I knew of an old dilapidated NHS building in Norwich which I thought may be useful for the shoot. I had been and photographed inside of the building a few years ago but when I returned recently the external doors had been boarded up. However there was access through a completely open window frame which you could just about squeeze through. I took my partner (who would play the main character, Nadan) to view the location and I took these images in preparation and these first photographs were taken looking through the window opening. Despite having a skylight in the roof, the room was extremely dark, requiring at least an ISO of 2000 and an aperture of f2.8 just to achieve a shutter speed of 1/50 second.


Despite the challenge with the lighting, I thought the building was going to be excellent in helping create that desperate scene of a fugitive hiding out in an unused room.  The ominous word ‘Run’ graffitied on the back wall was entirely in keeping with the story but was perhaps slightly too literal and so I was not entirely clear whether I would include this in the final image or not.

The yellow door had a domestic home feel about it and would echo the story of Nadan using zoo keeper’s residences as hide-outs. Equally, the existence of the old NHS treatment table meant that a viewer could infer somewhere where medical treatment was given – to human or animal in a veterinary sense.

The peeling green-hued tiles of the old NHS building also seemed to link to the original image of the kitchen bar in Nadan’s which were either tiles or green-painted bricks:-

I was not concerned about the level of graffiti. It was unspecific and/or unreadable (apart from the word ‘Run’); it could equally have appeared in a UK or Australian setting, and over the 300 hectares of the established zoo; it is likely there were outbuildings and disused areas which may have been in a similar state of disrepair.

Clearly there was a level of ready-made chaos with the amount of rubbish strewn across the floor and I wanted to capitalise on this for the photograph(s).


When Nadan was captured, the images show him with a heavy beard but clearly this was after 7 years of being on the run. The choice I had to make was whether I re-created the final stages of his life as a fugitive or I moved away from the literal aspect a little (maybe he was clean shaven when he initially went on the run). The latter would allow me to focus more on other more essential props needed to tell the survival story. (Besides, using a false beard on my partner was not an option – I’m sure this would have simply looked like comedy facial hair rather than the real thing!)

However, there was one element I wanted to recreate; Nadan had what looked like plastic coverings on his legs when he was arrested. I wondered whether this might have been to shield him from Australian insects over the years. This was something I was keen to reproduce in the final image(s).

I kitted my partner out in black for the shoot together with a black beanie hat to hide his hair. It seemed simpler to downplay the physical aspects of the subject which would again allow focus on the other props I had planned to include in the image.


I wanted the key props in the image to be the food items which Nadan had sourced in order to keep himself alive. Many of these were easily achievable but required some preparation. I extracted the following details from the 3 newspaper articles:-

……..He also stole bananas from elephants, slept in the roof space of a zoo managers’ hut and cooked himself meals on coin-fed barbecues………… food raids to the elephant house continued for several more days, but with a boosted police presence in the zoo, he slipped away from the area.

……coin-fed barbecues on the grounds were found still hot at 5am. Whoever was doing the stealing, cooking and camping seemed to be familiar with staff rosters too.

….. Most alarmingly, Roger believed the intruder had been in his house, which was also on zoo grounds. Milk disappeared from a jug. Bread and Vegemite went missing…..

…..Ten days into the hunt staff found bacon and sausage cooking on a barbecue hotplate about 5am, along with a toasting bread bun…..

I set about sourcing the following to include as props:-

  1. a large quantity of bananas – from Asda (cheapest!). This was ingenious on behalf of Nadan – full of protein and in vast supply as being used to feed elephants, these must have kept him going for months possibly and he would only have had to steal a relatively small number which may not have been noticeable to the keepers. For the photograph I decided to put empty skins on the floor as well as include a huge pile of uneaten bananas;
  2. a throwaway BBQ – I went to a camping shop to get these (now in September) out of season and spent some time in my garden lighting it and cooking some sausages on it until they looked particularly incinerated. I used both the BBQ and the sausages in the image(s).
  3. a jar of Vegemite and an almost empty bread bag – after much internet scouring I found the only supermarket to stock this was Morrisons. The jar had a distinctive yellow label and the brand is also viewed as somewhat of an Australian institution, therefore I’m pleased I was able to include this to provide a clear visual clue as to the actual location.
  4. Hessian sacks (for bedding) were impossible to source and so I improvised and used some textured dust sheets that we were using to renovate our house, as well as a very ancient red curtain to echo the orange coloured ‘60s’ style carpet/rug found in Nadan’s hut hideout.
  5. Carrier bags to be used to wrap around my partner’s (Nadan’s ankles) to keep the insects at bay.


I did not really need to spend too much time arranging the props in the room prior to taking the photographs. According to the images from the newspaper articles, there was no ‘order’ to Nadan’s living arrangements and food was piled on the floor in random piles. This was obviously easy to replicate.


The big skylight in the disused NHS treatment room let in a certain amount of available sunlight.


The day I was due to take the images, was forecast to be sunny in the morning with clouds and rain later in the afternoon. I therefore deliberately planned to do the shoot in the latter half of the day so that I could ensure that the photographs emphasised the dismal and gloomy living conditions for my ‘fugitive’ as well as allowing a much more evenly lit image, albeit quite sombre and eerie.

The existence of the sky light also replicated the fact that Nadan spent some of his time living in an attic/roof space, however I didn’t want to include the roof in the final image as I wanted to achieve a sense of claustrophobia and being enclosed within four walls, like being in a prison.

I also considered that some rain entering the room through the skylight roof would be quite atmospheric however in reality not much water entered through the roof even though it was really coming down hard during one part of the shoot. This would not have added to the story at all also, I just considered it might have made for a more impressive final photograph.

Additionally I played with the idea of using artificial lighting from a hand-held torch. The reason for this was two-fold:- firstly to give a harsh look to the image to replicate the type of crime scene images which have been photographed using a standard camera flash, and secondly to emphasise the subterfuge, and underground nature of Nadan’s existence, living his waking hours by torchlight scavenging for food.

My attempt at using this light was partially successful as shown in the image below. I placed the torch to the right of the frame which enabled the shadow of my fugitive to show quite menacingly, on the wall to the left of him. Unfortunately some flare was introduced into the shot and somehow the addition of the torch made me think that the image now looked a lot more ‘staged’, which is exactly the effect I didn’t want.


I played around with the height at which I held the camera and also swapped between using my 24-70 lens and a wider angled lens. I also requested that my fugitive move into different poses. I was clear that I wanted there to be no eye contact with the camera. I wasn’t looking for my ‘Nadan’ to have a direct connection to the viewers in this photograph; rather this was a window on his world which the viewer would be peering into.

Further, I wanted to aim for the ‘empty vessel’ look of the subjects in Crewdson’s ‘Cathedral of the Pines’ images where he directed them to provide no expression, no indication of what thoughts were coursing through their minds etc.

Some of my various shots taken are shown below:-

Final choice of single photograph or series of images

For the choice of image for the assignment, I decided that the scope of the images I had taken did not easily lend themselves to a series. They were essentially depicting the same details, so adding one or more images to it would not have broadened the story or given the viewer any additional information. Also I felt that a single image chosen contained enough detail to work as a standalone photograph.

The image I chose from all the photographs I took, I think worked because:-

  • I included ‘Run’ from the graffiti within the composition as the strong central core clue to the story;
  • the colour yellow works as a pattern within the image – from the pile of bananas to the jar of Vegemite, to the door;
  • my fugitive is looking skyward to possible freedom and he is clasping his hands in front of him in a pleading type gesture, maybe questioning his fate from his own personal God;
  • my Belgian ‘Stella’ empty can of lager is less noticeable;
  • my chosen props are visible in the image and they are fairly clear what they are, without dominating the composition of the entire photograph; and
  • the lighting is quite even (although having to have slight modifications in post processing to tone down the highlights to bring out the detail in the bedding and bright bananas, and equally the shadows are marginally lifted so that there is some detail in my fugitive’s face and clothing).

The final image is shown below:-

final image

Summary and Self-Assessment

Demonstration of technical and visual skills

I think have demonstrated good visual skills in creating the final photograph, with the subject and paraphernalia to one side of the room, the other side dominated by the old decaying treatment table. I like my use of available light within the image and I think this adds to the authenticity, and it was the correct choice not to include any artificial lighting into the frame.

The image required quite a steep ISO rating at 2000 to enable it to be taken hand-held at 200th of a second. To add extra light into the camera I kept the aperture wide at f2.8. I don’t think the details suffered as a result. I also sharpened the image post-production as this added to the ‘grittiness’ of the overall effect, rather than intentionally correcting any blurred elements in the frame. With the subdued lighting I also had to correct the luminescence slightly to remove the noise which showed up far more on the darker elements within the photograph. I like the texture on the walls and flooring from the peeling paint and detritus. Overall I am pleased with the result technically and rate it 3/5 to 4/5.

Quality of Outcome

My intention was that the viewer would be perplexed at the image. Why would a man be holed up in such a dirty room with a load of bananas, a jar of vegemite, and a throwaway BBQ for company? I think I managed to pull off a ‘constructed reality’ by using my subject, location and props to mimic a rather bizarre real-life story. There are a number of clues within the image which allow the viewer to pull together a story for him/herself; equally there are also a sufficient number of odd props in the photograph which render it quite surreal (especially the bananas!). Again I’m pleased with how I have managed to incorporate reality and some surrealism within one photograph and would score myself between 3/5 and 4/5.

Demonstration of Creativity

I think what I did was take a peculiar true life story and replay it relatively literally, but I wanted the photograph to have a real-life reference point. I was encouraging the viewer to have heard about Nadan and identify him in the image but more so, for those who hadn’t heard about the fugitive in real life, I wanted them to create their own story. Whilst the location was one that was available to me, I needed to gather props and dress my subject in the appropriate ‘fugitive’ attire. I also pushed myself out of a comfort zone to use locations which were difficult and required some planning with regards to weather conditions. 3/5.


I think I understood the challenge within the assignment and applied my skills well to it. To me, forming an idea for this assignment was the most crucial element and I really understood the concept that research is crucial before attempting to create a ‘manufactured reality’ in print. The more complex and ambiguous some of the clues, the more enjoyment a viewer might feasibly yield from attempting to ‘read’ your image. Similarly I would score myself between 3/5 and 4/5 for context.

ARE ZOO KIDDING? How Australia’s most wanted fugitive survived for months hiding in a ZOO stealing bananas from elephants, decapitating tortoises and raiding rubbish bins. By Corey Charlton 23rd July 2017, 4:10 pm Updated: 23rd July 2017, 5:56 pm

EXCLUSIVE: Stealing bananas from elephants, raiding rubbish bins and even gutting a giant tortoise to eat: How Australia’s most wanted murderer survived for months in a ZOO while evading police  By Stephen Gibbs for Daily Mail Australia

Published: 08:56, 23 July 2017 | Updated: 13:21, 23 July 2017



Part 5 – Exercise 2 – Nicky Bird ‘Question for Seller’

The brief for this exercise was to answer the following questions about Nicky Bird’s ‘Question for Seller’ series of photographs; groups of old family photographs she had purchased from eBay and which had attracted no other bidders, the underlying premise being that they were unwanted:-

Old Family Photographs

Does their presence on a gallery wall give these images an elevated status?

No, I don’t think the ‘status’ of the photographs changed: they were still simply groups of old family photographs which may have belonged to a family at one point, but either the family lineage had ceased (through all branches of the family being deceased), or actually they were unwanted, discarded items within a family that still exists, but who, rightly or wrongly, may not value them; either because they didn’t know enough about the various subjects within the photographs (maybe nobody had explained the history through the generations),or maybe simply because they took up valuable space.

Families are generally more fragmented today, with family trees overlapping through multiple marriages; the idea of a single ‘line’ through the generations is less common. Also there is a concerted push to not live in the past, to live for the moment rather than be nostalgic; also to avoid ‘clutter’ and hoard less.

Perhaps as a series created by a photographer, the ‘groups’ of photographs are elevated in status because of the connectedness of ‘discarded family history’, but individual groups of the discarded family photographs would revert to being just that once taken off the walls, out of the exhibition and back to their original state.

Where does their meaning derive from?

I sense the meaning is about how we view our own family histories today. Is it important to preserve them as original photographs, which are somehow sacrosanct, and indefinably linked to the ‘death’ of a lineage?  Or have other ways to remember and document a family history superseded this? The study of family histories on-line is flourishing, encouraged by numerous documentaries of celebrities tracing their ancestors and finding out revelations. Have many of these ‘original’ images been digitally scanned and therefore are still ‘living’, perhaps in a more accessible, informative and useful format?

I know that personally the touch and feel of these old photographs in my own family, is very much part of my ongoing relationship with them in my thoughts and memories. Scanning in the photographs and using them digitally, renders them a bit further away from my original great grandparents/uncles/aunts. After all those original photographs had been handled by them; they had made postcards of some and posted them to show them they cared and were thinking about each other when they were not together. My family now very much reduced down, renders these objects much more extraordinary and precious.

When they are sold (again on eBay, via auction direct from the gallery) is their value increased by the fact that they’re now ‘art’?

Clearly the fact that the photographs were curated by a well-known artist/photographer renders them more expensive financially as ‘elements’ within an exhibition.  The extended story of them belonging to the series and being part of an exhibition, would, by its nature attach greater worth to them. Perhaps when they are moved around the globe again, losing that extra piece of providence/history, they will once again be reduced to ‘worthless’. It is the legitimacy of that known journey to exhibition status which has, possibly momentarily, increased their worth.


Many years ago I fell upon some images on FlickR which fascinated me and which I complemented the creator of, only to receive a somewhat aggressive warning not to swipe the idea and try and recreate my own versions. It baffled me why the photographer had decided to publish them on the Internet if she was so concerned about her idea being replicated!

Anyhow, when I researched the Nicky Bird series, I immediately thought of these photographs. The idea was to actually put some old images in a freezer, effectively ‘freezing the moments in time’. The images then took on a more ‘final, death-like’ quality having a sheen of ice on them, a possible ‘Cryogenic’ treatment to preserve forever:- copies of the images are shown below:-

I like how the photographs are given even more of an ethereal feel with the frost partially covering the images. This maybe takes the idea of photographic archiving to a whole new level!

Part 5 – Research – Gregory Crewdson

The reading materials for the course suggested watching the following YouTube video about Gregory Crewdson’s work: and then answering the following:-

  • Do you think there is more to this work than aesthetic beauty?
  • Do you think Crewdson succeeds in making his work ‘psychological’? What does this mean?
  • What is your main goal when making pictures? Do you think there’s anything wrong with making beauty your main goal?
Untitled, 2004

Do you think there is more to this work than aesthetic beauty?

I think Crewdon’s work is clearly more than the creation of purely aesthetically pleasing images. There is so much natural beauty in the world, even in the mundane and ordinary, that it begs the question why he would not just go and take those readily available shots in nature, with all his production crew if necessary, if his sole reason to create his images was because they were beautiful.

Instead he chooses to go to extreme, elaborate and almost obsessive lengths to perfect even the minutest detail within his photographs.  Crewdson unashamedly wants to create an atmosphere in his shots however. His use of cinematic style lighting, artificial fog and deliberately wetting the road in the photograph above, makes clear his intention that building a particular ambience to his shot creation is crucial. But it seems that this is driven by the goal of evoking more of a response from the viewer. He seems to deliberately choose to capture those times of the day which tend to make us as humans more reflective, or where we might feel a sense of insecurity or danger – at twilight or dusk.

Do you think Crewdson succeeds in making his work ‘psychological’? What does this mean?

All Crewdson’s images seem to be single stills, lingering moments captured within a much bigger, more complex story. There are human beings in all of his images but they are always characters within a plot which is often so ambiguous that Crewdson seems to be willfully challenging us as viewers to edit our own beginnings, middle sections and endings and make our own cinematic ‘take’ on the story. It was interesting in the video to learn that Crewdson’s rather was a psychologist and he would listen through the floorboards to his father’s conversations when he was treating patients. He is premeditatedly inciting us to look beneath the surface of the characters and draw our own conclusions. Interestingly his subjects invariably have blank expressions and are almost directed to act this way for the shoot – this appears to be so that we as viewers can project our chosen state of mind onto the subject rather than obtain any obvious clues directly from the look on their faces.

What is your main goal when making pictures? Do you think there’s anything wrong with making beauty your main goal?

I think that sometimes I take photographs to replicate the beauty I see in an object or a place; I want to create a photocopy of it so that I can own a bit of it, and have it to myself. I also enjoy the challenge of making a beautiful photograph from such objects or places and improving it from the reality of the object if I can. For example, I visited the well known ‘Tulip Stairs’ at the Queen’s House in Greenwich a couple of days ago. Looking up the spiral staircase creates a wonderful impression like the curl of a seashell. Whilst the location was clearly architecturally stunning and beautiful, the staircase design delicate, I wanted to improve on what I saw as I edited the images – increasing the contrast and de-saturating the images added a dramatic impact, and taking the shot as less standard angles also provided a different perspective.

To me there is nothing wrong with having the end goal of creating a beautiful image in sight when you make a photograph. It’s not to say also, that the image itself won’t evoke different feelings and memories in others when they look at the images too. For example, the shapes in the photograph remind me of the game ‘Spirograph’ I used to play with a sa child and the tiled flooring makes me think of a roulette wheel. An image is rarely just plain beautiful, it will always conjure up an idea, or a memory in someone’s mind and means that even the very ‘low level’ or basic images can evoke a range of feelings, not just aesthetic pleasure, and therefore should not mean they are in any way diminished in stature by not being ‘complex’ enough.

Part 5 – Exercise 1 – Goodfellas Scene Setting

The brief for this exercise was to watch the scene from Goodfellas on youtube and explain what the scene says about the main character and list the clues it provides:-

The main character is clearly a main man about town. He is sharply dressed in suit, with slicked back hair, the evidence points to him already being wealthy. As the couple approach the club, the Copacabana, the main character hands his car keys to a man who is going to park the car for them and the female queries this and he downplays it – it’s easier to get someone else to park the vehicle and save him the trouble.  They bypass the queue of people waiting to go into the club indicating his VIP status. As they weave their long way through the underbelly of the building he greets all the staff like long-lost friends, but each of them gets a cash tip. This a payment for his anonymity perhaps – definitely a loyalty tip of some description.   As he pushes his way through the kitchen there is applauding but it’s not clear who this is for. None of the chefs appear to be surprised to see him so he’s obviously a regular visitor to the club, even though he occasionally barges his way through, they are unperturbed and he greets workers, jokes with them and shakes hands along the way.

I sense that the winding route through the club which leads the couple deeper and deeper is possibly a metaphor for them entering the underworld. The initial corridors are dark red and brooding, and then the walk through the kitchens was clearly not the way the general members of the public enter the club. It’s almost as though the couple were entering through a unnaturally upbeat, but simultaneously menacing labyrinth towards a seedy underworld of probable mafia and organised crime.

As the tables are unnaturally quickly set up for the couple amid waves from fellow groups of males, the main character answers his date when she asks him what he does, as ‘I’m in construction’. The irony of the words hang in the air thickly and we feel like we want to shout at the woman to ‘get out!’ while she can.

This is a great scene and it has reminded me to watch the whole film again in its entirety.